Igipimo cy’ inyungu fatizo cyageze kuri 6%

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Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda (BNR) yazamuye igipimo cy’inyungu fatizo, itangiraho amafaranga yayo kuri banki z’ubucuruzi, iva kuri 5,0% igera kuri 6%, mu rwego rwo guhangana n’izamuka rikabije ry’ibiciro ku isoko no gukomeza gushyigikira izahuka ry’ubukungu.

Inama ya Komite ya Politiki y’ifaranga y’iki gihembwe, yateranye ku wa 9 Kanama 2022, igamije gusuzuma ibyagezweho nyuma y’ingamba zafashwe mu nama iherutse, kureba uko ubukungu bwifashe n’uko bwitezwe mu gihe kiri imbere ku rwego rw’Isi n’imbere mu Gihugu, no kugena igipimo cy’inyungu fatizo ya BNR kizagenderwaho mu mezi atatu ari imbere.

Iri sesengura ryagaragaje ko izamuka ry’ibiciro rikiri ku kigero cyo hejuru, ahanini bitewe n’ibibazo binyuranye bijyanye n’urujya n’uruza rw’ibicuruzwa ku rwego rw’Isi, n’umusaruro w’ubuhinzi wabaye muke imbere mu Gihugu.

Ku rwego rw’lsi, iyoroshywa ry’ingamba zo gukumira icyorezo cya COVID-19, hamwe n’ingamba nzahurabukungu zashyizweho, byatumye habaho umurengera w’ibisabwa ku isoko ry’ibicuruzwa fatizo.

Ku bw’izo mpamvu, ibiciro by’ibicuruzwa by’ingenzi nka peteroli, gaz n’ibiribwa byakomeje kwiyongera. Byongeye kandi, intambara hagati y’u Burusiya na Ukraine, bimwe mu bihugu biza ku isonga mu bijyanye n’umusaruro no kohereza mu mahanga peteroli, gaz, inyongeramusaruro, amabuye y’agaciro, ibinyampeke, amavuta akomoka ku bihwagari, yatije umurindi iri zamuka ry’ibiciro.

Imbere mu Gihugu, ibiciro by’ibiribwa byariyongereye, bitewe n’umusaruro w’ubuhinzi wabaye muke biturutse ku kirere kitabaye cyiza, hamwe n’ibiciro bihanitse ku isoko mpuzamahanga by’ibintu by’ibanze bikenerwa mu buhinzi. Hashingiwe ku byavuzwe haruguru, igipimo rusange cy’ibiciro ku isoko giteganyijwe kuzamukaho 12.1% mu mwaka wa 2022, nyuma yo kwiyongeraho 0.8% mu mwaka wa 2021.

Bitewe n’uko ibiciro bihagaze ubu n’uko byitezwe mu gihe kiri imbere, Komite ya Politiki y’ifaranga, yafashe icyemezo cyo kuzamura inyugu fatizo ya BNR (CBR) ho iby’ijana 100, ikagera kuri 6% ivuye kuri 5%, hagamijwe kugabanya umuvuduko w’izamuka ry’ibiciro kandi ngo habungabungwe ubushobozi bw’abaguzi. Bijyanye n’iki cyerekezo cya politiki y’ifaranga hamwe n’izindi ngamba za Leta zitandukanye, hitezwe ko umuvuduko w’izamuka ry’ibiciro uzagabanuka ukegera igipimo fatizo cya BNR cya 5%, mu gice cya kabiri cya 2023.

Ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwitezwe gukomeza kwihagararaho

Igipimo gihuza umusaruro w’inganda na serivisi cyifashishwa mu buryo bw’agateganyo mu kumenya icyerekezo cy’ubukungu, cyazamutseho 10.7% mu gihembwe cya kabiri 2022 ugereranyije n’izamuka rya 32.5% mu gihembwe cya kabiri 2021, bitewe n’uko umuvuduko w’izamuka ry’umusaruro uva mu nganda na serivisi wagabanutse.

Ku bijyanye n’ubuhinzi, mu mezi atandatu ya mbere y’umwaka wa 2022, umusaruro wabaye muke bitewe n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere, ibiciro ku isoko mpuzamahanga bihanitse by’ibyibanze byifashishwa mu buhinzi, nk’ifumbire mvaruganda, umuti wica udukoko n’imbuto z’indobanure.

Mu gihembwe cy’ihinga A 2022, umusaruro w’ibiribwa wagabanutseho 1.2%, bityo ibiciro byabyo biriyongera imbere mu gihugu. Muri rusange mu mwaka wa 2022, umuvuduko w’izamuka ry’ubukungu witezwe kuba 6%, mu gihe wari kuri 10.9% muri 2021.

Igipimo cy’inyungu banki z’ubucuruzi zigurizanyaho cyakomeje kuba hafi y’inyungu fatizo ya BNR

Muri Gicurasi 2022, igipimo cy’inyungu fatizo ya BNR cyagumishijwe kuri 5%. Nyamara, igipimo cy’inyungu banki z’ubucuruzi zigurizanyaho cyariyongereye kigera kuri 5.54% mu gihembwe cya kabiri 2022, kivuye kuri 5.21% mu gihembwe cya kabiri 2021, bitewe n’izamuka ry’inyungu fatizo ya BNR muri Gashyantare 2022.

Igipimo cy’inyungu ku nguzanyo zihabwa abagana banki z’ubucuruzi, cyiyongereyeho iby’ijana 31 kigera kuri 16.31% mu gihembwe cya kabiri cya 2022, kivuye kuri 16.0% mu gihembwe cya kabiri cya 2021. Bityo inguzanyo zihabwa abikorera ziyongera ku muvuduko wa 16.2%, uvuye kuri 19.1% mu gihembwe cya kabiri 2021.

Ubuhahirane bw’u Rwanda n’amahanga bukomeje kuzahuka

Ugereranyije n’igihembwe cya kabiri umwaka ushize, umusaruro uturuka ku byo u Rwanda rwohereza mu mahanga wiyongereyeho 32.2% mu gihembwe cya kabiri 2022, naho ibyo rutumizayo byiyongeraho 24.5%. Bityo, icyuho hagati y’ibyo u Rwanda rwohereza n’ibyo rutumiza mu mahanga kirushaho kwaguka (+20.6%), n’ubwo ibijyayo byiyongereye cyane ugereranyije n’ibyo u Rwanda rutumizayo.

N’ubwo icyuho mu bucuruzi n’amahanga kiyongereye, mu mpera za Kamena 2022, u Rwanda rwari rufite ubwizigame mu madovizi buhagije bwafasha igihugu gutumiza ibintu na serivisi mu muhanga mu gihe cy’amezi 4.8.

Nta mpinduka zikabije zagaragaye ku isoko ry’ivunjisha

Ku isoko ry’ivunjisha, agaciro k’ifaranga ry’u Rwanda kagabanutseho 1.93% mu mpera za Nyakanga 2022 ugereranyije n’impera z’Ukuboza 2021, mu gihe kari kagabanutseho 1.80% muri Nyakanga 2021.

Byitezweko izamuka ry’ibiciro ku isoko rizakomeza kuba hejuru y’igipimo fatizo muri 2022

Mu gihembwe cya kabiri 2022, umuvuduko w’izamuka ry’ibiciro ku isoko, wageze kuri 12.1% uvuye kuri 5.9% mu gihembwe cya mbere 2022, bitewe n’izamuka ry’ibiciro by’ibicuruzwa bibikika (+10.4% nyuma ya +5.9%), iby’ibikomoka ku ngufu (+18.7% nyuma yo kuzamukaho 18.8%) n’iby’ibiribwa byangirika vuba (+16.4% nyuma ya +4.1%).

Mu mwaka wa 2022, igipimo rusange cy’ibiciro ku isoko cyitezwe kuzamuka ku muvuduko wa 12.1% mbere yo kugabanuka gisatira igipimo fatizo cya 5% mu mwaka wa 2023, kubera ingamba za politiki y’ifaranga ya Banki n’izindi ngamba zifatwa mu Gihugu.

Byitezwe ko umuvuduko w’izamuka ry’ibiciro ku isoko uzaguma kuba hejuru mu bihembwe bitatu biri imbere, ariko ukazagenda ugabanuka mu mezi atandatu ya nyuma y’umwaka wa 2023, ubwo umuvuduko w’izamuka ry’ibiciro uzagenda ugabanuka usatira igipimo fatizo cya 5.0%.

Abanyamakuru mu kiganiro na BNR

Zimwe mu mpamvu z’ingenzi zateye iri zamuka harimo, ibiciro bihanitse by’ibikomoka ku ngufu, nka peteroli, gaz n’ibiciro by’ibiribwa ku isoko mpuzamahanga, hamwe n’umusaruro w’ibiribwa mu mwaka wa 2022 wabaye muke bitewe n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere, hamwe n’ibiciro bihanitse by’ibicuruzwa by’ibanze bitumizwa mu mahanga byifashishwa mu buhinzi.

Hashingiwe kuri iri teganyamibare no ku byavuye ku ngamba zafashwe mu nama zahise, Komite ya Politiki y’ifaranga yafashe icyemezo cyo kuzamura igipimo cy’inyungu fatizo ya BNR ho iby’ijana 100 kiva kuri 5% kigera kuri 6%, hagamijwe kugabanya umuvuduko w’izamuka ry’ibiciro hanabungabungwa ubushobozi bw’abaguzi.

Iki cyemezo kizafasha cyane cyane mu kurwanya ingaruka zaturuka ku biciro bihanitse by’ibitumizwa mu mahanga, bitewe n’ibizazane bigwirira Isi. Komite ya Politiki y’ifaranga ikomeje kwita ku nshingano zayo, zo gukumira ihindagurika rikabije ry’ibiciro ku isoko.

Komite izakomeza gukurikiranira hafi uko ibintu byifashe, kujya inama n’abafatanyabikorwa batandukanye kandi yiteguye kongera kuzamura igipimo cy’inyungu fatizo ya BNR, mu gihe izamuka ry’ibiciro rikomeje kuba ku kigero cyo hejuru.

Ntihabose Dieudonne

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